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The Lecture of Grand Ayatollah Vahid Khorasani for the Occasion of Mid-Sha`bān

The Lecture of Grand Ayatollah Vahid Khorasani for the Occasion of Mid-Sha`bān

In the name of God, the compassionate, the merciful

 Translated by: Sheikh Hamed Soltanian

Resurrection has 28 names in the Qur’ān and one of the names [of resurrection] is the ‘Day of Regret’ (yawm al-ḥasrah).  The noble verse is this: {And warn them of the day of intense regret, when the matter shall have been decided…}[1]

     We believe this verse alone is sufficient.  If only a person is able to comprehend who it is that the verse is addressing.  It is [addressing] the Seal [of the Prophets], and [it is addressing him] as a warner.  Then what comes after the warner is the Day of Regret.  Then God states:  There is no more return [for you on this day] and the matter is finished [in regards to the deeds that decide your fate in the hereafter].

     We were heedless and did not do as much as we could have done.  If God grants [us] success maybe it can be made up for.

     When His Excellency Khizr reached the darkness with Alexander, Khizr stated, “Under the feet of these horses is something that whoever collects it will regret it and whoever does not collect it will also regret it.”

     Some people said, “If at the end we are going to be regretful [anyway] why trouble ourselves [in the first place].”

     Others dismounted [their horses] and collected [the things which were under the foot of their horses].  When the darkness past [and they could see their surroundings and what they were carrying again].  They looked [at what they had collected] and alas! What they had collected were emeralds.  Those who had collected the emeralds were regretting why they collected so little.  The regret would be there for those who could collect even one extra [emerald].  Those who did not collect anything were [completely] regretful.  The reality of [the statement] “And warn them of the day of intense regret” is this.

     In this world there is darkness.  Truly the Qur’ān is amazing: {Allah is the guardian of those who believe. He brings them out of the darkness into the light.}[2]

     In this darkness there are hidden gems.  Whoever collects them will be in regret in the hereafter as to why he or she did so little.  Those who do not take benefit from it at all will be in a state of regret which is not comprehensible, because there is no return to makeup for what they lost out on.  For example, in regards to the martyrdom of Her Excellency [Fatimah] Zahra (peace and blessing of Allah be upon her) we could have changed another town (so that they would commemorate her martyrdom in a better way), but we didn’t.  We will regret it forever because last years commemoration will not return [i.e., there is one commemoration we could have done but we did not do].  Therefore, if in that town an association or group came out and commemorated the martyrdom of Her Excellency Fatimah Zahra and her name was kept alive, the result would have been this.

     The sixth Imam (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) has a saying.  In order to comprehend these words and reach the depth of their meaning one has to be at the level of such jurisconsults (faqīh) as Sheikh Anṣārī.  The statement of His Excellency [Imam Ṣādiq] is this: “Allah has had mercy on (him) who will revive our commandments”.

     This statement from the Imam is the solution to the problem of the day of regret.  Firstly, the prayer is in the past tense “raḥama allah” [Allah has had mercy] not “yarḥamallah” [Allah will have] and this in itself needs a lengthy discussion.  How different is the relationship between a taḥqiqiyah aspect [for a verb that is in the past tense] with a tarqībiyah aspect [for a verb in the present and future tense] requires an in-depth discussion [in regards to this narration].  [We are talking about] the prayer of him who [is an Imam and] the first sign of Imamate is this: “Verily he knows the Imam [who has] knowledge and [who his] prayers are answered”.  Therefore, it is not possible that he [i.e., the Imam’s] prayer is not answered.  That prayer is this: God has had mercy on not God will have mercy on; God has had mercy on who will revive our commandments.

     Then what is reviving of the commandments?  What is that mercy?

     First, [in order to know about] the mercy which His Excellency [Imam Ṣādiq] asked for, we have to go back to the Qur’ān itself.  The text of the Qur’ān [we are referring to] is this: {…and the mercy of your Lord is better than what they amass.}[3]  [This means that] whatever every human being from the beginning of [their] creation to the end amass, it will not be worthy of one mercy.  This is the mercy the Imam has asked for and [the Imam has asked for this mercy] for those who revive their commandments.

     This is why until now we have lost so much.  Years past and there was no news of the martyrdom of Her Excellency [Fatimah] Zahra.  The things we could have done but it slipped away from our hands.  Now we have to be alert so that we can make the most use from any opportunity [that comes our way].  “Allah has had mercy on (him) who will revive our commandments”.  That regret will be made up for through this because whatever is [in regards to this matter] is right here [in this prayer].  The people that creation is for are those who have [reached a stage in which it is as if they have become] annihilated in God meaning that their own will is completely annihilated and they only [apply] the will of God.  {And they give food out of love for Him to the poor and the orphan and the captive: We only feed you for Allah’s sake;…}[4]  This is an example of their deeds.  It is then which all existence is annihilated in the way of the will of God.  This is the case; the God who {His command, when He intends anything, is only to say to it: Be, so it is},[5] His will has become their will.

     This Zīyārat is the one that Sheikh Ṣadūq states [regarding it]: “It is the most authentic zīyārat.  In such a zīyārat is this: The will of God in all that He has decreed and destined has descended upon you and it is from your houses that it is distributed.

  The work of those who work in their way can never be truly appreciated.  This is the reason that we are unaware and cannot comprehend because the issue is beyond our comprehension.  First, we have to know who the work is for.  For example mid-Sha`ban is coming.  What has happened [on that day]?  Who is the owner of this day?  The mind is astonished.  The Imam of Our Time cannot be described.

     When I, myself, reach this matter, I am astonished.  Sunni and Shi`ah have written… and this is what is amazing.  God willing, I will at one time explain this narration if the opportunity arises.  The narration is this: His companions are the same number as the companions of [the battle of] Badr.  Each one has one sword.

     Try to comprehend this fully.  If the servant has this rank and position, then what is the rank of the master?

     Each one has one sword. On the hilt of each sword there are one thousand words.[6]  From each word a thousand different kind of knowledge will be opened.

     This is the rank of the companions of the Imam of Our Time.  Then the sentence which astonishes the mind is this: “None from those who came before (awwalūn) can exceed them in rank nor can those who will come at the end understand them.”[7]

     What is the rank of these 313 that all those who came before…  What does it mean when it is said ‘those who came before’ (awwalūn)?  All the chosen ones (awliyā) from before and all the (awliyā) from the end, from the first to the last, none will reach the ranks of these 313 individuals.

     This is the rank of his companions but what of himself?  What is his rank?  The case of the Imam of Our Time is beyond the comprehension of [ordinary] minds.  If people understand, then the entire country should be submerged [in celebrations and admiration] on the night [preceding the day of] mid-Sha`ban.

     In the world such a thing has never happened.  When the messenger (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him and his family) was at the point of introducing him he said, “The Mahdi is my son.”  Then what astonishes the mind are these two sentences: “His name is the [same as] my name and his kunya [epithet] is [the same as] my kunya.”  The name and kunya of the Seal [of the prophets] has not been allowed [to be used together] for anyone.  But it is allowed and exists in Ḥujjat ibn al-Ḥasan [the divine proof son of Hasan].  [His] name [is the same] name as the Seal [of the prophets], [his] kunya [is the same as] the kunya of the Seal [of the prophets].  The sentence that astonishes the likes of Sheikh Anṣārī is this: “From among all human beings, he most resembles me both in terms of his creation and his dispositions;…”

     Every person has a soul and a body.  The best body and soul in existence in the world of creation and dispositions belongs to the first in rank among all created beings and he is the Seal [of the prophets].  Then he himself states, “From among all human beings, he most resembles”; [meaning that] in the entire human race the [one who] resembles me the most, both in his bodily creation and in the perfections of the soul, there is no one that resembles me more than Mahdi.  This is why the Imam of Our Time cannot be described.

     The most that people can do on the night preceding [the day of] mid-Sha`ban is lighting up [the areas around them]…, but where is the owner of that night?

     When Sheikh Ṭūsī recites the supplication for mid-Sha`ban in Misbāḥ al-Mutihajjid, the mind of every wise person and every jurisconsult (faqīh) is astonished.  The Imam of Our Time is presented in two ways: “The bright light and brilliant shine.”

     The Imam of Our Time is the light from God but he is the bright light.  The Imam of Our Time is the ‘shine’ from God, but a brilliant shine.  This is the statement of the divine proof from God and in the Misbāḥ al-Mutihajjid of the Sheikh of our creed (Sheikh al-Ṭā’ifah), Sheikh Ṭūsī.  This is [the state and rank of] the Imam of Our Time.

     You have all read the chapter of [the Qur’ān called] wa l-Shams: {I swear by the sun and its brilliance, and the moon when it follows the sun, and the day when it shows it,…}.[8]  There are three words that come one after another.  The ‘sun’ is interpreted to mean the Seal [of the prophets], the ‘moon’ is interpreted as being the Commander of the Believers [Imam `Ali], [and] the ‘day’ is interpreted to mean Ḥujjat ibn al-Ḥasan [Imam al-Mahdi].  { and the day when it shows it}.

     All of you make a decision and propagate [what I am going to tell you]:  Every month read the Qur’ān completely at least once.  Gift that reading to the Imam of Our Time.  The effect of this deed will be known at a later time.  These are the red elixirs but we only wakeup [from our inattention] when it is too late.

     Several years ago I came across this narration.  The narration has such an authentic chain of narration that a jurisconsult [faqīh] of the highest calibre, the likes of Sheikh Anṣārī , Mīrzā Shīrāzī, the First Martyr [Muhammad ibn Jamāl al-Dīn Makkī `Āmilī], the Second Martyr [Ḥasan Najl Zayn al-Dīn `Āmilī] [have accepted it].  The narration that we come across and astonishes the intellect the result of it is this:  whoever does this deed, that is to say, read Qur’ān as much as possible [and] gifts it to him [i.e., Imam Mahdi] his definite reward – which has no comparison – is this: [he or she] will be with him.  His reward will be ‘being with him’.  Paradise no longer has any [significant] meaning or value.  Someone whose deed is this: [he or she who] reads the Qur’ān as much as possible and gifts it to the Imam of Our Time, what will be given to him or her that both in this world and the hereafter he [or she] will be with him [i.e., Imam Mahdi].  What does it mean to be with him?  The very being with Imam of Our Time…  The Imam is [he who he states about himself]: “Whoever wishes to see, I am Adam, I am Shīth.”

     When he appears [again], he will state: “Whoever wishes to see Adam and Shīth, I am Adam, I am Shīth, I am Noah, I am Sam [son of Noah], I am Abraham, I am Ishmael, I am Moses, I am Aaron, I am Jesus, I am Simon,…” until he reaches this point, “Whoever wishes to see Muhammad and `Ali, I am Muhammad and `Ali.”

     Imam of Our Time is the extraction of all prophets and vicegerents [of prophets].  Serving him, working and striving for him, propagating his virtues and merits, explaining his excellence, reviving his commandments, and all during his occultation, [do these thing since] he is that gem who on the day of resurrection [you will regret that] we could have taken one more step in his way but we didn’t.

     In either case, I hope that your name is recorded in the book [of deeds for Imam Mahdi].  Of course, [this writing of your name in the book] is not without a cause [it is due] either to the food your father has given you, or the milk of your mother, or you have virtuous deeds [that you are credited with and] God has chosen you [because of it].  Otherwise not everyone can have their name recorded in the book of Siddīqah Kubrā (Fatimah Zahra) and to revive the day and night in which the Commander of the Believers wished to leave this world.  This is the rank which cannot be described.  This is a success.  Try so that your name is not crossed out and strive and work and enrol others [in such activities] because such work is difficult and this number of people [currently doing it] is too little.

     However many caring and intelligent people who can understand the issue and are attracted to such work, and however many of these occasions are done in the best of ways, then its effect is in two places, two indescribable places: One is the moment of [dying] when the soul is being taken out [of the body and] “the intensity of death and losing [the world] has surrounded them”;[9] it is in that time that without hesitation “Oh, Ḥārith of Hamedān whoever dies will see me.”[10]  Whoever dies will see me and there is no exception.  In that moment the Commander of the Believers will come next to your bed [while you are passing away] then he will look and see you are the same [person] who struggled so vigorously for his wife, the one whose back and ribs were broken, then there would be no place for Izra’īl [i.e., the angel of death].  The second is the day of resurrection when all prophets say: “Oh sorrow.”  All of a sudden she [Fatimah Zahra] will come and will place a blood soaked shirt on her head and will say: “My God, my followers (shī`atī).  [Angel] Gabriel will come, he will say: “Oh slave of God! God sent his salutations on you and states: ‘Ask for whatever you wish for today is given to you.’”  This is the narration: “Just as a bird collects seeds [she will] collect her followers and servants.  This is your reward [if you do the things mentioned].

     Know the value of such blessings.  Do not become tired and give up [working in this path] and persevere in regards to whatever befalls you [while working in this path]…  {…this is because there afflicts them not thirst or fatigue or hunger in the way of Allah,…}[11]

     What is ‘Allah’s way’?  [The answer] is in Zīyārat al-Jāmi`ah: “You [the Ahlul Bayt] are the great way and the firm path [of Allah]”.  This is [the value of] your deeds.  {But a good work is written down for them on account of it}.[12]  This is your recompense.

     Oh Allah, for your representative, the Ḥujjat [proof], son of al­Ḥasan send your blessings on him and his forefathers in this hour and in every hour, as (our) guardian and protector and a leader, a helper, a proof, and a source of guidance until you place him on your earth (as the head of a just government) and bestow him an extended stay (i.e., extend his reign) in it.

     On exactly 11 [p.m., the night preceding the day of 15 Sha`ban] do the following: That night people should definitely read [the Qur’ānic] chapter of YāSīn (chapter 36), after reciting chapter of YāSīn, [read] Zīyārat Āli YāSīn and gift the [reading of the] chapter [YāSīn] to the Imam of Our Time.  Then, at exactly 11 p.m. start the Du`ā Faraj with the name of the eleventh Imam.


     [1]Qur’ān 19:39.

     [2]Qur’ān 2:257. 

     [3]Qur’ān 43:32.

     [4]Qur’ān 76:8-9. 

     [5]Qur’ān 36:82.

     [6]Sheikh Ṣadūq.  Kamāl al-Dīn.  Qom, Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyah, 1395 A.H., vol.2, p.671. 

     [7]Abī Abdillah al-Ḥākim.  Mustadrak `alā Ṣaḥīḥayn.  Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1978, vol.4, p.554.

     [8]Qur’ān 91:1-3. 

     [9]Imam `Ali.  Nahj al-Balāghah.  Qom: Inteshārat Dār al-Hijrah, n.d., p.160.

     [10]Ibn Abī al-Ḥadīd.  Sharḥ Nahj al-Balāghah.  Qom: Kitābkhāneh Ayatollah Mar`ashī, 1404 A.H., vol. 1, p.299. 

     [11]Qur’ān 9:120.

     [12]Ibid.

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Recommended Acts for Pregnant Women

Recommended Acts for Pregnant Women

By: Hajjieh Khanoom Zahra Soltanian

 

One of the most significant and enjoyable events and most often forgotten by society is the joy of becoming a mother. This role is seldom recognised in society today and is considered rather mundane and goes unrewarded by family and society in general. However, we will find many positive and encouraging narrations (hadiths) from the Ahlul Bayt and Qur’ānic verses in our religion which give this event the due recognition and importance. The journey begins with the desire to have a child, to bearing a child and to giving birth to that child. Through these phases, on many occasions the mother encounters hardship and suffering and at this point she needs to find some solace, not only from her family and friends but first and foremost from Qur’ān and narrations. In this article I hope to present narrations and Qur’ānic verses which can guide us through this magnificent experience.

 

During Pregnancy
First of these narrations relate to us the reward received when a woman becomes pregnant. One such narration is narrated from Umm Salamah (R), one of the virtuous wives of the Prophet Muhammad (S). Umm Salamah asked the Prophet (S), “Men get all the good rewards but what about women?” He replied, “The reward of pregnancy is the same as fasting and night worship, and struggling in the way of God with one’s wealth and life. Delivery has such an extensive divine reward which no one can comprehend. And for breastfeeding, each suck of the baby has the reward of freeing one of the slaves from the generation of Isma`īl. When the mother stops, a noble angle shall nudge her on the side and tell her, start over since you are forgiven.”[1]
We can see that just being pregnant has been given the reward equivalent to not one but three other acts of worship in Islam, fasting, night worship and struggling (jihād) in the way of God, all acts of worship that on their own carry many rewards.
The next stage is the period of pregnancy as the child grows and develops in the mother’s womb. The mother should try her best to keep herself occupied with religious acts such as reading Qur’ān, doing du`ā and praying and keeping away from fruitless activities which will not benefit her or the child growing inside her. During this period the mother can perform the following acts recommended by Grand Ayatollah Sheikh Vahid Khorasani, to ensure that the baby becomes religious, virtuous and good:
During pregnancy the state of the mother has a great effect on the unborn child. In order to have a morally sound child in the first place stay away from doing sins. Do all your obligatory duties. Pray for the moral soundness of your child from the time of pregnancy. Everyday recite part of the Qur’ān. In the morning after your (obligatory) morning prayers and at night before sleeping recite chapter al-Ḥamd (first chapter of the Qur’ān) eleven times and gift the reward you receive (from reciting it) to Imam Zamān (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him). Everyday recite the Aḥd prayer (Du`ā). As much as possible recite Sūrah (verse) Yā Sīn and gift the blessings you receive from (reciting it) everyday to one of the fourteen infallibles (ma`sūm).[2]
Some other Qur’ānic verses recommended to be recited include Surah Wāqi`ah (Chapter 56) in the first 3 months of pregnancy, Surah Raḥmān (Chapter 55) in the second three months of pregnancy and Surah Maryam (Chapter 19) in the last three months of pregnancy.

 

Time of Delivery
Regarding the time of delivery in the above narration the Prophet (S) has said, “Delivery has such an extensive divine reward which no one can comprehend.” It has also been narrated from the Prophet (S) who said, “Give your wife a few dates as soon as she delivers her child, since God ordered Mary to eat dates at the time of delivery. Give her seven dates from Medina or your own town. God has said: I swear by my Majesty, Grandeur, Nobility and Highness that if a woman eats dates on the day of childbirth, then the child shall be patient (ḥalīm) whether it is a boy or a girl.”[3]
Furthermore, we find this narration from Imam Sadiq (AS) who said: “A woman who dies during delivery will not be accountable for her deeds in this world since she has died with the sorrow of childbirth.”[4]
For the easy and safe delivery of a child, the editor of ‘Ṭibbu l-A’immah’ has narrated from Imam Mohammed Baqir (A.S.) that a person approached him and told the Imam that his wife was on the verge of death on account of delivery, the Imam asked him to go back immediately and read the following Du`ā:

فَأَجَاءَهَا الْمَخَاضُ إِلَىٰ جِذْعِ النَّخْلَةِ قَالَتْ يَا لَيْتَنِي مِتُّ قَبْلَ هَـٰذَا وَكُنتُ نَسْيًا مَّنسِيًّا فَنَادَاهَا مِن تَحْتِهَا أَلَّا تَحْزَنِي قَدْ جَعَلَ رَبُّكِ تَحْتَكِ سَرِيًّا وَهُزِّي إِلَيْكِ بِجِذْعِ النَّخْلَةِ تُسَاقِطْ عَلَيْكِ رُطَبًا جَنِيًّا.

(And the throes (of childbirth) compelled her to betake herself to the trunk of a palm tree. She said: Oh, would that I had died before this, and had been a thing quite forgotten! Then (the child) called out to her from beneath her: Grieve not, surely your Lord has made a stream to flow beneath you; And shake towards you the trunk of the palm tree, it will drop on you fresh ripe dates.) [5]
And say loudly:

وَاللَّـهُ أَخْرَجَكُم مِّن بُطُونِ أُمَّهَاتِكُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ شَيْئًا وَجَعَلَ لَكُمُ السَّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَالْأَفْئِدَةَ ۙ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ.

(And Allah has brought you forth from the wombs of your mothers-you did not know anything-and He gave you hearing and sight and hearts that you may give thanks.)[6]

کَذالِکَ اَخرُجَ أیُّهَا الطَّلقُ اُخرُج بِإِذنِ الله.

(Let the pains of birth be removed in the similar way, be removed by permission of Allah.)
Whenever he would recite this, his wife would be relieved.[7]

 

After Childbirth
After a woman delivers her child, there are some acts which are recommended to be performed on the child as close as possible to the time of birth (recommended even before the child is given breast milk for the first time). These acts include:
  • To give the newborn child a ritual bath (ghusl).
  • To recite the adhān (Islamic call to prayer) in its right ear.
  • To recite the iqāmah in its left ear.
  • To perform taḥnīk for it. Taḥnīk is the name given to the act of putting the soil (turbah) of Imam Husayn (AS) or water from Euphrates (or if none of these are available some sweet water by adding dates or honey to the water) in the child’s mouth by rubbing it on the palate of the mouth.
  • To give the child a good name such as names that indicate slavery to Allah (SWT) (e.g., Abdullah), names of prophets and Imams (AS) and if the newborn is a girl the names of Fāṭimah al-Zahra (SA). According to narration it is recommended (mustaḥab) to choose a name for the unborn child before he or she is born. It is recommended to call the male child Mohammad until the seventh day after his birth and then to call him by the name chosen for him after that. It is discouraged to call the name of the child Ḥakam, Ḥakīm, Khālid or Ḥārith.
  • To give the child a kunyah (type of epithet) but it is discouraged to give the kunyah Abul Qāsim if the boy’s name is Muhammad.[8]
Following these traditions, there are some specific rituals which are highly recommended to be carried out on the 7th day of the child’s birth. These are as follows:
  • Shaving the child’s head and giving the weight of the hair in gold or silver as charity. Although it is the giving of the weight in gold or silver as charity which is recommended and the shaving is only the means for measuring the weight of the hair. Therefore, the weight of the hair can be estimated rather than the hair actually being shaved.
  • To perform circumcision on the male child.
  • To pierce the two ears of the female child.
  • To sacrifice a sheep (preferably a male for a boy and a female for a girl) known as (`aqīqah) and to give a banquet inviting believers (mu’min). The parents of the newborn child and anyone who the parents are responsible for and pay their living expenses should not consume the meat from the `aqīqah.[9]
Nursing the child
It is highly recommended in Islam that the mother should suckle the child for up to the age of two. In the Qur’ān, Allah says:
And the mothers should suckle their children for two whole years for him who desires to make complete the time of suckling; and their maintenance and their clothing must be borne by the father according to usage; no soul shall have imposed upon it a duty but to the extent of its capacity; neither shall a mother be made to suffer harm on account of her child, nor a father on account of his child, and a similar duty (devolves) on the (father’s) heir, but if both desire weaning by mutual consent and counsel, there is no blame on them, and if you wish to engage a wet-nurse for your children, there is no blame on you so long as you pay what you promised for according to usage; and be careful of (your duty to) Allah and know that Allah sees what you do.[10]
This verse also gives the mother and father of the child options regarding nursing of the child. If the mother and father both wish to give the child to another woman for nursing then there is no harm in doing so but it is recommended that the women suckling the child should be a Twelver Shi`ah, sane, virtuous and with a good looking face. It is discouraged to give the child for suckling to a woman who is intellectually challenged, has a bad looking face, is born out of wedlock or has a child born out of wedlock.[11]
In Islam there is no obligation on the mother to suckle her child. Nonetheless it is highly recommended (mustaḥab) that the mother suckles her child and if she chooses to suckle the child she may ask for compensation from the father of the child and the father is liable to pay a reasonable amount for the period of nursing. However, it is recommended that the mother does not ask for compensation for suckling her own child.[12]

 

Footnotes:

 


[1]Allamah Majlisī. Biḥār al-Anwār. Beirut: Mu`assisah al-Wafā’ Beirūt, 1404 A.H., v.101, pp.106-107.
[2]Verdict (Isteftā) number 10670.
[3]Allamah Majlisī. Biḥār al-Anwār. Beirut: Mu`assisah al-Wafā’ Beirūt, 1404 A.H., v.101, p.116.
[4]Allamah Majlisī. Biḥār al-Anwār. Beirut: Mu`assisah al-Wafā’ Beirūt, 1404 A.H., v.101, p.107.
[5]Qur’ān: 23-25.
[6]Qur’ān: 16:78.
[7]Husayn wa Abdullah ibnā Basṭām. Ṭibbu l-A’immah. Qom: Enteshārāt Sharīf Raḍī, 1411 A.H., p.69.
[8]Grand Ayatollah Kho’ī and Grand Ayatollah Vaḥīd Khorāsānī. Minhāj al-Ṣāliḥīn. Qom: Madreseye Imam Bāqir al-`Ulūm (AS), n.d., v.3, pp.322-323; Sheikh Ṭusi. Al-Nihayah: A Concise Description of Islam Law and Legal Opinions. Translated by A. Ezzati. London: ICAS Press, 2008, p.355; Al-Muḥaqqiq al-Ḥillī. Sharā’i al-Islām fī Masā’il al-Ḥalāl wa l-Ḥarām. Translated by Hasan M. Najafi. Qum: Ansariyan Publications, 2003, v.2, 306; Allamah Majlisī. Biḥār al-Anwār. Beirut: Mu`assisah al-Wafā’ Beirūt, 1404 A.H., v.101, pp.116.
[9]Grand Ayatollah Kho’ī and Grand Ayatollah Vaḥīd Khorāsānī. Minhāj al-Ṣāliḥīn. Qom: Madreseye Imam Bāqir al-`Ulūm (AS), n.d., v.3, pp.322-323; Sheikh Ṭusi. Al-Nihayah: A Concise Description of Islam Law and Legal Opinions. Translated by A. Ezzati. London: ICAS Press, 2008, pp.355-356; Al-Muḥaqqiq al-Ḥillī. Sharā’i al-Islām fī Masā’il al-Ḥalāl wa l-Ḥarām. Translated by Hasan M. Najafi. Qum: Ansariyan Publications, 2003, v.2, 307; Allamah Majlisī. Biḥār al-Anwār. Beirut: Mu`assisah al-Wafā’ Beirūt, 1404 A.H., v.101, pp.108-109.
[10]Qur’ān 2:233.
[11]Grand Ayatollah Vaḥīd Khorāsānī. Tozīḥ al-Masā’il. Qom: Madreseye Bāqir al-`Ulūm (AS), 1423 A.H., p.676.
[12]Grand Ayatollah Vaḥīd Khorāsānī. Tozīḥ al-Masā’il. Qom: Madreseye Bāqir al-`Ulūm (AS), 1423 A.H., p.676; Sheikh Ṭusi. Al-Nihayah: A Concise Description of Islam Law and Legal Opinions. Translated by A. Ezzati. London: ICAS Press, 2008, p.356.
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